Types of Foundation in Construction

Table of Contents

Foundation is an element of the structure which transfers all the loads from superstructure to the ground. These loads can be either vertical i.e dead load, live load or superimposed dead load and lateral load i.e earthquake, wind or frictional load.

Foundation structures can be broadly classified into 2 types of foundation:

  • Shallow Foundation
  • Deep Foundation

Shallow Foundation can be of following types:

  1. Isolated Footing: – This type of footing is mostly provided when it has to support single column and the columns are well spaced. These footing are of 3 types i.e Sloped, Pad and stepped footing which has been shown diagrammatically below.

Isolated Footing

  1. Combined Footing: – Combined footing is mostly used when columns are closely spaced or if column has eccentric footing or if soil has low soil bearing capacity so the foundation are of large sizes. Combined footing also has varieties such as rectangular/trapezoidal, strap beam, beam slab and balanced footing.

          Combined-Footing

  1. Wall Footing: – This footing is used for wall which is clear from its name only. This type of footing can be single pad type or can be step footing which is shown in the below diagram.

        Wall-Footing                                        

  1. Raft Foundation: – Raft foundation is mostly used where the soil bearing capacity is low and also if there are too many columns which are closed spaced then raft foundation is economical. This foundation is also known as mat foundation.
    Raft-Foundation

Deep Foundation can be following types:

  1. Pile Foundation:- Pile foundation is nothing but long slender concrete columns which transfer superstructure load to the hard strata which is deep below or balance the loads through its friction with the soil. This foundation is used where there is weak soil at the surface and good strata is deep below or if the soil has low SBC value. Piles are also of 2 types one is end bearing and other is friction pile which are also shown below.

               

Pile-Foundation

  1. Caissons: – Caisson Foundation is also known as pier foundation which is a water retaining structure used as a bridge pier or in the construction of dam. This is mostly used in the places where foundation is required beneath rivers or other water bodies. Caisson are prefabricated hollow box or cylinder sunk into the ground to some desired depth and then filled with concrete thus forming a foundation.
    Caissons
  2. Pile Raft: – Piled raft foundation is typically used for large structures and in situations where soil is susceptible to excessive settlement. They are mostly used for high rise buildings/skyscrapers. In the situation where a raft foundation alone doesn’t satisfy the design requirements then it may be possible to increase its capacity by using a combination of both raft and pile.

pile_raft

 

 

 Mr. Nishant Jain

Architect

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This Post Has 17 Comments

  1. Yogesh vaishnav

    Nice

  2. Vivek kumar

    most important

  3. SANJAY S DARDA

    best

    1. Sanchita sadanand chaitanya

      Nice😊

  4. Narendra Pachare

    Fiundation aur uske prakar shallow aur deep foundation ki jankari mili sir

  5. Sitaram Keshri

    Foundation structures can be broadly classified into two types of foundation.
    Shallow foundation
    Deep foundation
    Shallow foundation can be of following types -Isolated footing ,combined footing, Wall footing, Raft foundation.
    Deep foundation can be following types –
    Pile foundation, Caissons , Pile Raft.

  6. GANESH BHOPE GURUJI

    Nice information

  7. Rachit Chawla

    Great information sir

    1. Shweta chundawat

      Very good information about foundation .

  8. Pranali_B

    Foundation ke bare main bta chla

  9. prakash yadav

    nice

  10. Bahut kuch sikhneko milraha hai, construction ke bare mein bhi jankari aur kuch valuable drawing mila

  11. Most very very important information about construction, it is most importan for civil engineer, and also important for us

  12. kirti kumar joshi

    super

  13. aditya

    Very nice

  14. Shweta chundawat

    Very good information about foundation .

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